May 16, 2018

Blog Series on Federal Laws Waived for Border Wall

On May 16, 2018, we launched our blog series on the 48 federal laws that have been waived to expedite construction of a massive, solid wall on the U.S. border with Mexico. Beyond the 48 federal law waivers, there are countless state and local laws that have also been waived. Here is our list of the federal laws that have been waived along with the dates they were originally enacted.

Federal Laws Waived for Border Wall and Year Enacted



  1.  The Antiquities Act  (AA)     1906

  2.  The National Park Service Organic Act. (NPSOC)   1916

  3.  The Migratory Bird Treaty Act  (MBTA)      1918

  4.  The Migratory Bird Conservation Act (MBCA)     1929

  5.  The Historic Sites Act (HSA)     1935

  6.  The Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act (FWCA)   1936

  7.  The Reclamation Project Act (RPA) Section 10     1939

  8.  The Bald Eagle Protection Act (BEPA)       1940

  9.  The Administrative Procedure Act (APA)     1946

10.  The National Fish and Wildlife Act (NFWA)   1956

11.  The Multiple Use and Sustained Yield Act (MUSYA)   1960

12.  The Sikes Act (SA)     1960

13.  The Clean Air Act (CAA)     1963

14.  The Wilderness Act (WA)      1964

15.  The Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA)    1965

16.  The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA)     1966

17.  The National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act (NWRSAA)     1966

18.  The Wild and Scenic Rivers Act (RSRA)     1968

19.  The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)      1970

20.  The National Park Service General Authorities Act (NPSGA)     1970

21.  The Clean Water Act (CWA)    1972

22.  The Noise Control Act (NCA)     1972

23.  The Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA)    1972

24.  The Endangered Species Act (ESA)      1973

25.  The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)      1974

26.  The Archaeological and Historic Preservation Act (AHPA)    1974

27.  The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)     1976

28.  The Federal Land, Policy, and Management Act (FLPMA)    1976

29.  The National Forest Management Act (NFMA)    1976

30.  The Federal Grants Cooperative Agreements Act (FGCAA)   1977

31.  The National Parks and Recreation Act (NPRA)     1978

32.  The American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIRFA)    1978

33.  The Archaeological Resources Protection Act ( ARPA)    1979

34.  The Comp. Environmental Resp., Compensation, & Liability Act  (CERCLA)   1980

35.  The Rivers and Harbors Act (RHA)     1980

36.  The Farmland Protection Policy Act (FPPA)    1981

37.  The Arizona-Idaho Conservation Act (AICA)     1988

38.  The Federal Cave Resources Protection Act (FCRPA)     1988

39.  The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA)     1990

40.  The Arizona Desert Wilderness Act (ADWA)      1990

41.  The Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA)    1993

42.  The Otay Mountain Wilderness Act (OMWA)     1999

43.  The Military Lands Withdrawal Act (MLWA)      1999

44.  The National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA)     2000

45.  The Paleontological Resources Protection Act (PRPA)     2009

46.  The California Desert Protection Act (CDPA)       2010

47.  The National Trails System Act (NTSA)       2017

48.  The Wild Horse and Burro Act (WHBA)       2017

May 2, 2018

Tinaja Database is Up and Running



The Tinaja Database is a bibliography— the first of its kind— that addresses how border security and border barriers affect wildlife. Much as a tinaja stores rainwater in the desert, this database will gather and store up-to-date literature on the impact of border barriers on wildlife.


The database is currently housed at Zotero, which is a free, non-profit run bibliographic platform. The tutorial below will show you how to become a member of the Tinaja Database and how to use the database.



Tinaja Database Tutorial



To use the Tinaja Database, you must first create an account with Zotero. Please visit and click on the ‘Log In’ link on the top right. On the next page, follow the link titled ‘Register for a free account’.


The webpage will prompt you to Download the Zotero Desktop App. This is OPTIONAL. For now, skip this step.


Once you have registered, you will need to request membership from the staff of Friends of the Sonoran Desert at


We will send you an invite email that will lead to the splash page of the Zotero database with "Recently Added Items" at the top.


To actually become a member of the database (and thus be able to access attachments) you need to click "Join" on the right bar of the page - which is easy to miss. Becoming a member allows you to access article attachments without infringing on copyright.


Ready, Set, Go!

Now you are ready to use the Tinaja Database.  Please follow the steps below.


Go to
Log in.  If you are already logged in, then
Click on “Groups”.
Click on “Tinaja Database”
Click on “Group Library,” at the top of the page, where you can search and browse the bibliography.

Friends of the Sonoran Desert

P.O. Box 25592

Tempe, AZ  85285

P.O. Box 25592

Tempe, AZ. 85285

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